Wheat, Red & White, Hard & Soft
Wheat dominates the international market, comprising of about 85-90% of the grain traded. It is classified as hard or soft, red or white. One gene determines whether a wheat variety is hard or soft. Red vs. white refers to the overall color of the seed coat or bran. Darker, red wheat varieties are generally bitterer compared to lighter, white wheat varieties due to inherent levels of tannins and other compounds associated with bran color and taste. In the U.S. most bread flour is produced from hard wheat varieties and most cookie, cracker, and other confectionary flour is produced from soft wheat varieties. If the wheat bran and germ are separated during milling, the quality of the flour isn't affected by the wheat color or growing habit. Flour quality depends on whether the wheat was genetically hard or soft. Nutritional properties of common wheat vary depending on the variety and on growing conditions. Almost all common wheat contains 12-13% fiber. It's a good source of most of the B vitamins and generally contains more vitamin B3 than any other cereal grains.